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Larva - Volume 1


An introduction to dragonfly larvaeDragonfly larvae require water to survive, so female adults are always searching for water habitats such as ponds, streams and swamps to lay their eggs. The eggs are laid directly into or close to water.Once hatched, the larvae adopt an aquatic lifestyle very different from their parents. Some dragonfly larvae appear squat while the bigger ones are longish and robust.




Larva - Volume 1



The larvae of the damselfly, which is related to dragonflies, are mostly slender and elongated with leaf-like appendages known as caudal lamellae.These appendages function essentially as external gills. All larvae are able to breathe by sucking water into their abdomens and through internal gills. A larva can also eject the water forcefully to propel themselves for a quick escape whenever necessary.


Different species of dragonfly larvae live in different water microhabitats. Some cling onto water plants floating on the water surface, some lay camouflaged among leaf litter at the bottom, while some of the rarer species in our forests even burrow into the sand beds of stream. No matter what type of water habitats they live the water must be clean and unpolluted.


They are amazing aquatic huntersJust like their parents, the larvae are fully carnivorous. They are fierce predators of any aquatic animals they can catch. Water insects like water beetles and mosquito larvae; worms; tadpoles; and even small fishes are part of their diet.Dragonfly larvae have a unique way of catching their prey. Imagine your lower jaw is flexible and extendable, and is equipped with fearsome hooks and sharp teeth.


When a prey swims past, this lower jaw will shoot out with lightning speed to capture and retrieve it for consumption. So in this way, dragonfly larvae can stalk and ambush prey efficiently. Thus dragonfly larvae are one of the top predators in an aquatic insect food-chain.


Growth habitsLike other insects, dragonfly larvae grow by moulting, becoming bigger with each moult. Depending on the species, a larva goes through 10 to 12 rounds of moulting process.Larvae of different species grow at different rates which is in turn dependent on factors like food availability, habitats and climate. In Singapore, larvae of most common species take about six months to a year to grow.


In countries where there are different seasons, dragonfly larvae will stop growing during winter and enter a state similar to hibernation. Only in the warmer months of spring and summer will they resume growth. In situations like this, scientists have found larvae as old as six years.


Maturing into adult dragonfliesOnce ready to emerge into adult dragonflies, the larvae will climb out of the water, perhaps onto a water plant or half-submerged twig. By then they would have started breathing air.


Spread out over ten volumes, this series storywise falls somewhere between the OAV and the television series. In this version, Ranka is the helpful second tier shinma, but Reiha is largely the same. Most volumes include several stand alone stories regarding Miyu hunting and locating stray Shinma. However, there are several chapters in various volumes relating to the western shinma. In this version it is Lemures who was Larva's companion previous to him coming to Japan. There is also Carlua, who is the daughter of Larva's adoptive uncle, Pazusu. Carlua is deeply in love with Larva (as is Lemures) but both fail in their attempts to "rescue" him from Miyu. These result in Lemures being banished to the darkness and Carlua being repelled, and her little sister Lilith being incinerated by Miyu. Additionally, there is a human girl named Yuma Koizumi who is introduced in volume 4 who becomes a return antagonist. As a school girl, Yuma was loved and marked by a shinma named Tsubaki. Tsubaki belongs to a clan of shinma called "Muma". When he starts to be hunted, Tsubaki is surprisingly accepting, although sad; at the fact he will be parted from Yuma. However, when Miyu returns him to the dark, Yuma vows vengeance. With the help of Tsubaki's companions, Yuma attempts to kill Miyu, knowing Miyu would have difficulty attacking a human foe. The attack ultimately does not succeed and Yuma is left to her misery as Miyu refuses to feed from her (partially out of spite, and out of respect to Tsubaki). In volume 10, it is discovered the Yuma spent the rest of her life pursuing Miyu and her mystery, but is never able to kill her. In the end, Miyu visits Yuma on her death bed, finally drinking her blood.


This series is encompassed in five volumes and covers the actual events that Miyu is given a glimpse of at the end of volume 10 of the original series. The Western Shinma, led by Pazusu, and supported by Carlua (his daughter), Lemunia (Lemures' younger brother), and a powerful young Shinma called Cait Sith. The Western Shinma succeed in kidnapping Larva, purging Miyu's blood from him, and sealing his memory of his time with her. This results in a showdown where Larva kills Miyu, although he is not entirely certain why he feels bothered by this. In actuality, Miyu is not quite dead as her spirit survives through her blood that was passed from Yui's mom into Yui in utero (see Vampire Princess Yui below). Yui is then drawn to Miyu's realm to help her be reborn. In the meantime, it's discovered that the "rescue mission" was all a ploy by Cait Sith to reach Japan and retrieve a short sword in which his mother's spirit is sealed. It is revealed not only was his mother sealed by the Watcher before Miyu, Cait Sith (both are members of a nearly extinct clan called the Quarl) was actually responsible for putting the idea of challenging the Eastern Shinma into Lemures' and Larva's heads originally. As Cait Sith succeeds in resurrecting the queen (though not without a catch and mortally wounding Pazusu), the race is on to get Yui safely to the spot of Miyu's rebirth. With the help of the second tier Eastern Shinma and Lemunia, she succeeds and Miyu is brought back to life. After unsealing Larva's memories and reestablishing the blood bond, Miyu and the remaining Western Shinma join forces to defeat the Quarl and destroy the Queen. Afterward, Pazusu asks Larva to kill him so he doesn't die of his wounds and Carlua makes one last attempt to wrest Larva away from Miyu by threatening to kill him. Miyu calls her bluff and Carlua retreats, thanks to the newly freed Lemures. He explains as they leave that during Miyu's time being dead, many stray Shinma (including himself) took advantage of her absence to escape the Darkness once more. The series ends with Miyu and Larva heading off to start rounding these escapees up again.


Another series licensed by Studio Ironcat for an English-language release. Despite publishing the series in full in monthly comic installments, the company only released one collected volume before going out of business.


AnimEigo originally released the OVA series on two VHS tapes in 1992 with separate editions containing English audio and English subtitles, each containing a sheet of liner notes related to the series. The liner notes were eventually redone for the DVD release and included in Volume 1. The Volume 2 DVD contains a card with a humorously worded message stating that the complete liner notes are available in the first volume, and that if some form of insert were not included in the second, consumers would undoubtedly start complaining. In the UK, the series was licensed by Manga UK, who produced an alternate English dub for VHS in the UK (this dub was also shown on the British Sci-Fi Channel). However, AnimEigo's dub was used for the UK DVD release.


During desiccation the Polypedilum vanderplanki larva loses 97% of its body water, resulting in the shutdown of all metabolic and physiological processes. The larvae are able to resume active life when rehydrated. As dehydration process has already been largely understood, rehydration mechanisms are still poorly recognized. X-ray microtomograms and electron scanning microscopy images recorded during the hydration showed that the volume of the larva's head hardly changes, while the remaining parts of the body increase in volume. In the 1H-NMR spectrum, as recorded for active larvae, component characteristic of solid state matter is absent. The spectrum is superposition of components coming from tightly and loosely bound water fraction, as well as from lipids. The value of the c coefficient (0.66 0.02) of the allometric function describing the hydration models means that the increase in the volume of rehydrated larvae over time is linear. The initial phase of hydration does not depend on the chemical composition of water, but the amount of ions affects the further process and the rate of return of larva's to active life. Diffusion and ion channels play a major role in the permeability of water through the larva's body integument.


In rare cases, cutaneous larva migrans may be complicated by Löffler syndrome. This syndrome is thought to result from a type I hypersensitivity reaction related to the pulmonary larval migration phase of various parasites. It is characterized by migratory pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates and peripheral eosinophilia, with malaise, fever, and cough. Our patient was successfully treated with ivermectin, a corticosteroid cream, and inhalation medication in an early phase, which prevented complications. We present the details of this case and review the literature.


Cutaneous larva migrans is a condition caused by the epidermal migration of nematodes. We report a 27-year-old man with a creeping skin eruption after a holiday in Thailand who developed pulmonary symptoms after arriving at home. The diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans with subsequent Löffler syndrome was made based on the clinical picture, radiographic findings, and blood tests. In only very rare cases, patients develop both cutaneous larva migrans and Löffler syndrome [1]. It is important to diagnose Löffler syndrome at an early stage to prevent unnecessary complications. 041b061a72


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