Natural Hazards: Earth's Processes As Hazards, ...
The textbook explains the earth processes that drive hazardous events in an understandable way, illustrates how these processes interact with our civilization, and describes how we can better adjust to their effects. Written by leading scholars in the area, the new edition of this book takes advantage of the greatly expanding amount of information regarding natural hazards, disasters, and catastrophes. The text is designed for learning, with chapters broken into small consumable chunks of content for students. Each chapter opens with a list of learning objectives and ends with revision as well as high-level critical thinking questions. A Concepts in Review feature provides an innovative end-of-chapter section that breaks down the chapter content by parts: reviewing the learning objectives, summary points, important visuals, and key terms. New case studies of hazardous events have been integrated into the text, and students are invited to actively apply their understanding of the five fundamental concepts that serve as a conceptual framework for the text. Figures, illustrations, and photos have been updated throughout.
Natural Hazards: Earth's Processes as Hazards, ...
The book is designed for a course in natural hazards for nonscience majors, and a primary goal of the text is to assist instructors in guiding students who may have little background in science to understand physical earth processes as natural hazards and their consequences to society.
A geologic hazard is an adverse geologic condition capable of causing damage or loss of property or life. These geologic processes only become hazards when humans get in their way; if there were nopeople affected, we would find these natural phenomena interesting, but not concerning. Alaska is home to a variety of potential geologic hazards, and some are unique to our high northern latitude.
Geosciences offer exciting opportunities for students with an interest in applying a full range of science and mathematical skills to understand the earth's properties and dynamic processes. This is a highly interdisciplinary program that applies physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to understand and manage all aspects of Earth and the environment. Geoscientists work everywhere in the world under almost any condition as they search for earth resources, manage the environment and natural hazards, and supervise technical and business enterprises. For more information about exciting careers in Geosciences consult www.agiweb.org/careers.html. The extensive scientific and mathematical skills of geoscientists, along with their broad field experience, allow them to pursue careers in many related fields ranging from material science to technical management to scientific reporting.
1004: EARTH SCIENCE: OUR PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE Introduction to Earth science, including the fundamental concepts of geology in the modern context of humans interacting with the Earth. Formation and evolution of the Earth (history, plate tectonics, the rock cycle, geologic time), internal Earth dynamics (earthquakes, volcanoes, mitigating natural hazards), Earth materials (minerals and rocks, energy and mineral resources), surface processes (Earth system science, hydrologic cycle, global geochemical cycles, oceans and atmosphere, climate, erosion and landscapes), Earth sustainability (resources, environmental change), evaluating geological information and products of research, the scientific approach to problem solving, and the ethical issues associated with geoscience and the environment. (3H,3C)
Natural hazards are defined as environmental phenomena that have the potential to impact societies and the human environment. These should not be confused with other types of hazards, such as manmade hazards. For example, a flood resulting from changes in river flows is a natural hazard, whereas flooding due to a dam failure is considered a manmade hazard, and therefore excluded from the National Risk Index.
Natural hazards can also cause secondary natural hazard events that create additional hazards. For example, Volcanic Activity can create other hazards, such as ash and lava spread. The National Risk Index only considers main natural hazard events and not their results or after-effects.
Statewide Planning Goal 7 identifies six natural hazards that are common in Oregon. Local governments are required to plan for these hazards to reduce risk to people and property. The hazards identified in Goal 7 are: floods, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, coastal erosion, and wildfires. The Oregon Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan (2015) identifies and addresses five additional hazards: droughts, dust storms, volcanoes, windstorms, and winter storms. Local governments may choose to address other hazards as well.
Tsunamis are a low frequency natural hazard in Oregon and are restricted almost exclusively to coastal areas. Tsunamis are long, high sea waves that are most often caused by the abrupt change in the seafloor accompanying an earthquake. The most common source of the largest tsunamis are from earthquakes that occur at subduction zones like the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ), where an oceanic plate descends beneath a continental plate. Other processes that may trigger a tsunami include underwater volcanic eruptions and landslides (including landslides that start below the water surface and landslides that enter a deep body of water from above the water surface). Tsunamis can also travel thousands of miles across ocean basins. Therefore, a coastal area may be susceptible to two different types of tsunamis:
Volcanic eruptions are potentially destructive natural phenomena. They occur when magma below ground ascends and then discharges onto the earth's surface. Volcanic eruptions are typically focused around a single vent area, but vary widely in explosivity. Therefore volcanic hazards can have far reaching consequences. Volcanic hazards may occur during eruptive episodes or in the periods between eruptions. Eruptive events may include pyroclastic surges and flows, ashfall, lava flows, or slurries of mud and debris known as lahars. Eruptions may last days-to-weeks or years, and have the potential to dramatically alter the landscape for decades. (Oregon Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan, 2015)
Without question, the most important natural variables that influence changes to the shape and width of the beach and ultimately its stability are the beach sand budget (balance of sand entering and leaving the system) and the processes (waves, currents, tides, and wind) that drive the changes.
DLCD currently supports a hazards portal for related planning information on natural hazards, as well as an online web application that allows users to explore GIS data depicting natural hazards in the state. The Hazards Reporter was funded by DLCD and built in collaboration with Oregon State University and the Institute for Natural Resources. It allows you to obtain reports on hazards for specific areas and access hazards data from multiple state and federal agencies. Additionally, the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) built a statewide hazards viewer, HazVu, that provides information on a variety of geologic hazards in Oregon.
ESS 101 Introduction to Geology and Societal Impacts (5) SSc/NScIntroduction to the processes, materials and structures that shape Earth. Emphasizes the dynamic nature of the earth's tectonic system and its relationship to physical features, volcanism, earthquakes, minerals and rocks and geologic structures. The course emphasizes the intrinsic relationship between human societies and geologic processes, hazards and resources. Not open for credit to students who have taken ESS 210. Optional field trips. Prerequisite: No prerequisite classes required. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: ESS 101
ESS 305 Geology of the National Parks (5) NScReviews a wide range of fundamental geological processes, using North American parks and monuments as examples of natural laboratories. Includes plate-tectonic history, volcanism, mountain-building, and glacial, fluvial, and a host of other geomorphic forces as preserved in geologic exposures of National Parks. Prerequisite: either ESS 101, ESS 105, ESS 210, ESS 211, or ESS 212.View course details in MyPlan: ESS 305
ESS 315 Environmental Earth Science (5) NScAnalysis of geologic constraints upon human activity and the environmental consequences of such activity. Topics include hillslope processes, fluvial and groundwater processes, earthquake and volcanic hazards, and environmental aspects of deforestation and atmospheric pollution. Prerequisite: either ESS 101, ESS 105, ESS 210, ESS 211, or ESS 212. Offered: jointly with ENVIR 313.View course details in MyPlan: ESS 315
ESS 504 The Earth Surface (3)Investigates the coupled tectonic and geomorphic processes that shape the surface of the Earth, creates the surface environment that sustains humanity and other life systems, and produces natural hazards. Introduces modern tolls, techniques, and theories applicable to analysis of this coupled dynamic system.View course details in MyPlan: ESS 504
ESS 533 Dynamics of Snow and Ice Masses (3)Rheology of snow and ice. Sliding and processes at glacier beds. Thermal regime and motion of seasonal snow, glaciers, and ice sheets. Avalanches and glacier surges. Deformation and drift of sea ice. Response of natural ice masses to change in climate. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered: jointly with ATM S 512.View course details in MyPlan: ESS 533
ESS 587 Fundamentals of Climate Change (3)Examines Earth's climate system; distribution of temperature, precipitation, wind ice, salinity, and ocean currents; fundamental processes determining Earth's climate; energy and constituent transport mechanisms; climate sensitivity; natural climate variability on interannual to decadal time scales; global climate models; predicting future climate. Offered: jointly with ATM S 587/OCEAN 587.View course details in MyPlan: ESS 587 041b061a72