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Drug Discovery And Development, 3rd Edition (20... ((HOT))



Drug Discovery and Development, Third Edition presents up-to-date scientific information for maximizing the ability of a multidisciplinary research team to discover and bring new drugs to the marketplace. It explores many scientific advances in new drug discovery and development for areas such as screening technologies, biotechnology approaches, and evaluation of efficacy and safety of drug candidates through preclinical testing. This book also greatly expands the focus on the clinical pharmacology, regulatory, and business aspects of bringing new drugs to the market and offers coverage of essential topics for companies involved in drug development. Historical perspectives and predicted trends are also provided.




Drug Discovery and Development, 3rd Edition (20...



With unprecedented interest in the power that the modern therapeutic armamentarium has to combat disease, the new edition of Drug Discovery and Development is an essential resource for anyone interested in understanding how drugs and other therapeutic interventions are discovered and developed, through to clinical research, registration, and market access.


The text has been thoroughly updated, with new information on biopharmaceuticals and vaccines as well as clinical development and target identification. Drug discovery and development continues to evolve rapidly and this new edition reflects important changes in the landscape.


The third edition of this best-selling book continues to offer a user-friendly, step-by-step introduction to all the key processes involved in bringing a drug to the market, including the performance of pre-clinical studies, the conduct of human clinical trials, regulatory controls, and even the manufacturing processes for pharmaceutical products.


Essential insight into drug development and the pharmaceutical industry With unprecedented interest in the power that the modern therapeutic armamentarium has to combat disease, the new edition of Drug Discovery and Development is an essential resource for anyone interested in understanding how drugs and other therapeutic interventions are discovered and developed, through to clinical research, registration, and market access. The text has been thoroughly updated, with new information on biop...


Essential insight into drug development and the pharmaceutical industry With unprecedented interest in the power that the modern therapeutic armamentarium has to combat disease, the new edition of Drug Discovery and Development is an essential resource for anyone interested in understanding how drugs and other therapeutic interventions are discovered and developed, through to clinical research, registration, and market access. The text has been thoroughly updated, with new information on biop...\n Expand abstract');MathJax.Hub.Queue(["Typeset",MathJax.Hub]);}); Publication status: Published Peer review status: Peer reviewed Actions Email


The strategies and logistics of drug discovery have evolved over many decades, underpinning major advances in healthcare, as well as the growth of global industries. These pages offer an introduction to the practices of drug development, illustrating the principles of target identification, drug design and screening, target validation, lead identification and lead optimisation. Key stages in the sequence are illustrated with case studies from the last 60 years, which saw the exploitation of natural product chemistry and the emergence of modern drug design strategies. These web pages are designed to support UG chemistry courses, the intention being to illustrate the principles of drug development at the molecular level. Interactive molecular models are included so that structures can be explored in depth. The files utilised in the case studies are freely available from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). They can be viewed online at the source, or downloaded for visualisation as interactive 3-D models using modelling software, in this case the JSmol molecular viewer.


Kalorama Information market research studies have the data you need on the drug discovery market opportunity, providing analysis, projections, and information on market direction. Drug discovery operations can prove time-consuming and difficult, and may come at a high economic cost, which has driven outsourcing in this field. Kalorama explores an important segment, the contract research organization segment, looking in detail at an approach that is helping to shape the drug discovery market today.


Genomics and proteomics have uncovered a wide array of potential drug targets and are facilitative of enhanced scrupulous target identification and validation thus reducing efficacy-related drug attrition. When used complementarily, phenotypic and target-based screening platforms would likely allow serendipitous drug discovery while increasing rationality in drug design. Drug repurposing and repositioning reduces financial risks in drug development accompanied by cost and time savings, while prolonging patent exclusivity hence increased returns on investment to the innovator company. Equally important, collaborative research is facilitative of cross-fertilization and refinement of ideas, while sharing resources and expertise, hence reducing overhead costs in the early stages of drug discovery. Underserved therapeutic fields are niche drug discovery areas that may be used to experiment and launch novel drug targets, while exploiting incentivized benefits afforded by drug regulatory authorities. Outsourcing allows the pharma industries to focus on their core competencies while deriving greater efficiency of specialist contract research organizations. The existing and emerging pharmaceutical modeling and artificial intelligence softwares and tools allow for in silico computation enabling more efficient computer-aided drug design. Careful selection and application of these strategies, singly or in combination, may potentially harness pharmaceutical research and innovation.


Humans have been in a perpetual tug-of-war with diseases since the ancient days. Efforts to contain plagues have been recorded in historical artifacts over the course of our existence. While many remedies had been discovered in the early centuries, it cannot be gainsaid that the twentieth century was a pharmaceutical golden era that brought the bulk of the current repertoire of drugs at our disposal [1]. The accelerated speed at which drugs were discovered can be attributed in part by a significant leap in the scientific disciplines of biology and organic chemistry. The former facilitated a thorough understanding of the pathophysiological basis of the diseases hence enabled scientists to accurately detail the underlying biochemical derangements leading to the observed disease phenotype. Organic chemistry, on the other hand, was instrumental in the synthetic and/or semi-synthetic derivation of novel drug molecules to address the existing and emerging unmet medical needs [2]. Serendipitous drug discovery also played a critical role in drug discoveries as exemplified by the manner that penicillins were discovered by the English bacteriologist Alexander Fleming in the year 1928. The golden era of drug discoveries continued for five decades following the discovery of penicillin. The resultant effects of drug discoveries were felt across all spheres of the human race most notably the significant improvements in the quality of life and the prolonged longevity enabling humans to live much longer than ever before [3].


The number of new drug molecules coming through the drug discovery and development pipeline started dwindling in the 1980s [4]. A review of the literature reveals that less than one in 10,000 potential drug compounds that begin the drug discovery journey find their way to the clinic [5]. It is hypothesized that we may have exhausted the low hanging fruits and thereby greater efforts are needed to bring new drugs to the market. The entry bar for new molecules entering clinical utilization has been raised by regulatory agencies which demand that significant advantages over existing therapeutic options be evident for the new drugs to be considered for marketing authorization. These attributes include increased efficacy, higher potency, reduced toxicity, ease of administration, and affordability [6]. The overreliance on high technology platforms to identify lead compounds coupled with combinatorial chemistry have been associated with yielding highly lipophilic (greasy) molecules that exhibit poor aqueous solubility resulting in poor pharmacokinetics profiles [7]. These factors have individually and collectively conspired to increase the cost of identifying and developing new drug molecules with the costs currently hovering above US $2.6 billion per molecule. The number of pharma companies with such financial clout and willing to take the financial risk has gradually decreased through mergers and acquisitions over the years [8].


Figure 1 summarizes the drug discovery and development process. Though a highly lucrative and rewarding enterprise, the process of drug discovery and development is a complicated and arduous scientific journey that begins with identification of a disease or disease area with an unmet medical need. The pharmaceutical or biopharmaceutical firm embarks on the pre-discovery phase which entails elucidation of underlying molecular basis of the disease and development of appropriate animal disease models as well as assay platforms. This is followed by identification of putative targets whose chemical modulation may lead to a therapeutic effect. Upon target identification and validation, the drug discovery team embarks on identifying molecules with the desired pharmacological activity starting with primary hit compounds that are systematically modified to enhance the potency, decrease unwanted effects, and improve desirable physicochemical attributes during the hit-to-lead discovery phase. The end product of the drug discovery process is a candidate drug that is taken through pre-clinical studies and later drug development that transforms the molecule to a clinically useful medicinal product whose efficacy, safety, dosing, and tolerability is established through elaborately designed and executed clinical trials [11]. 041b061a72


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